A bee colony contains roughly 300 – 700 mg iron. Per season a bee colony gathers an estimated 8 to 12 grams of iron, mainly from pollen. A substantial amount of the iron that is collected ends up in the honey.
Bees store most of their iron in special cells in the abdomen fat body. You can read about the distribution of iron in the body of a honeybee in the publication http://jeb.biologists.org/content/180/1/1.full.pdfhttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/180/1/1.full.pdf. For further reading, see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC/articles/PMC3082545/.
From the following Illustration by Theo Leyssen, derived from http://jeb.biologists.org/content/180/1/1.full.pdf, it is evident that queen bees store the most iron. Throughout their lives, drones have approximately twice as much iron as workers. Link.
According to http://jeb.biologists.org/content/126/1/389.full.pdf after administering iron, the iron level in a bee reaches a certain maximum. This occurs within approximately two weeks, and does not depend on the amount of iron available for digestion. This maximum is reached as soon as the foragers start foraging.